sábado, 28 de agosto de 2010

Contextos funerários...The Eighth International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe

















Já se encontra disponível o programa do congresso do Mesolítico de Santander onde serão apresentadas algumas comunicações sobre os rituais funerários deste período.

http://www.meso2010.com/welcome.html

"The Eighth International Conference on the Mesolithic in Europe will be held in Santander from 13th to 17th September 2010, organised by the Cantabrian International Institute for Prehistoric Research with the support of the Department of Culture, Tourism and Sport of the Cantabrian Government and the University of Cantabria.

This is the first time this prestigious series of conferences is held in southern Europe; furthermore, in a region with a long tradition in prehistoric studies, particularly on the Mesolithic. Santander is situated in the centre of the north coast of Spain and is one of the classic areas for the study of hunter-gatherers in southwest Europe, not only because of its famous Palaeolithic sites and its outstanding collections of cave art, but also because of its concentration of Mesolithic sites. The study of these sites has been decisive in shaping current ideas about the Mesolithic in the south of Europe. Since 1910, when the Count of Vega del Sella began his exploration of shell middens in the east of Asturias, Cantabria’s Mesolithic remains have been the object of sustained research which, in recent years, has culminated in the intense activity of a young, dynamic community of researchers. We are sure that the Santander Conference will be an excellent opportunity for colleagues from other parts of Europe to get to know at first hand the research and sites of this corner of Atlantic Europe" in: http://www.meso2010.com/welcome.html

sábado, 21 de agosto de 2010

Anta 1 da Cabeceira (Brotas, Mora)





Este monumento foi intervencionado pelo Prof. Manuel Heleno nos meses de Setembro e Outubro de 1937.
Apresenta câmara com sete esteios e chapéu in situ. Corredor com cinco esteios de cada lado. Muito bem conservada.
Apesar da sua monumentalidade, forneceu escasso espólio (13 peças no corredor e 17 na câmara) de acordo com os registos de M Heleno e confirmado, posteriormente, no MNA.

domingo, 15 de agosto de 2010

Monte dos Condes (Mora)

A mamoa do Monte dos Condes (Pavia, Mora) foi identificada em 1994, no âmbito dos trabalhos de prospecção que se estavam a realizar na área de Pavia (Rocha, 1997). A mamoa apresentava um diâmetro de cerca de 20m x 26m e apenas afloravam à superfície o topo de dois pequenos esteios.

Os primeiros trabalhos arqueológicos realizados em 2009, inserem-se nos objectivos desenvolvidos em projectos anteriores por L. Rocha, sobre o megalitismo funerário do Alentejo Central. A escavação deste monumento pelo seu excelente estado de conservação à superfície, poderá vir a contribuir para a compreensão da génese e evolução dos contextos funerários pré-históricos, neste concelho.

A 1ª campanha, da responsabilidade cientifica de L. Rocha e P. Alvim, trouxe vários aspectos inéditos no contexto do megalitismo funerário deste concelho. De facto, a existência de uma deposição secundária no interior da sepultura, com uma taça inteira, remete-nos para uma reutilização deste espaço na Idade do Bronze (contexto funerário não documentado neste concelho). Por outro lado, a escassez de materiais arqueológicos pré-históricos, à superfície e nas unidades intervencionadas, parece indiciar que esta reutilização não terá destruído os contextos funerários anteriores.



Espera-se que com a campanha de 2010 este, e outros problemas que se encontram em aberto, venham a ser cabalmente esclarecidos...


quinta-feira, 12 de agosto de 2010

Bases de dados

Um bom exemplo de como se pode disponibilizar dados, à comunidade,  através de uma Base de Dados on-line...

segunda-feira, 9 de agosto de 2010

As Grutas da Cantábria


















Este Verão está a revelar-se muito profícuo para todos os que gostam (ou investigam) a Arte Pré-Histórica: depois da inauguração do Museu do Côa temos agora uma exposição sobre as Grutas da Cantábria, para quem se quiser deslocar um pouco para NNE, nestas férias...


quarta-feira, 4 de agosto de 2010

Egyptian kingdoms dated

Radioactive isotopes nail the timeline of Egyptian dynasties.

Nature, 17/06/2010, by Richard Lovett

"A three-year study of hundreds of artefacts looks set to settle several long-standing debates about Egypt's ancient dynasties.
The study, which appears in today's issue of Science1
 http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100617/full/news.2010.304.html#B1#B1 , is the first to use high-precision measurements of radioactive carbon isotopes to produce a detailed timeline for the reigns of Egyptian pharaohs from about 2650 BC to 1100 BC.
"It is a very, very important finding," says Hendrik Bruins, an archaeologist and geoscientist at Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Israel, who was not associated with the work. "For the first time, radiocarbon dating more or less corroborates the essence of the Egyptian historical chronology."

Led by Christopher Bronk Ramsey, a physicist and mathematician at the University of Oxford, UK, the researchers use the well-established technique of measuring the amount of radioactive carbon-14 in ancient artefacts. Plants absorb carbon-14 as they grow, and the radioisotope decays naturally over time after they die. Measuring carbon-14 levels in artefacts made of organic material allows archaeologists to determine their age.

Archaeologists throughout the world use radiocarbon dating, but surprisingly, no high-precision dating work had been done on Egyptian artefacts before. Egypt has strict bans on the export of archaeological items, and the equipment needed for a high-quality study did not exist in Egypt, says Bronk Ramsey.

To circumvent this problem, Bronk Ramsey and his team collected 211 samples from museums in Europe and the United States. To ensure that the samples were made from organic material that grew at the same time that the artefact was made, they avoided artefacts made of wood and bone, relying instead on baskets, textiles and foods.

Aligning the pharaohs
Most of the samples were taken from tombs known to be associated with the reign of specific pharaohs. Because the order in which these pharaohs had ruled - and the approximate lengths of their reigns - was already known, the samples could be examined as a group. Measuring many samples at once improved the precision of some dates to within just two decades, far better than individual samples would allow.

The findings are likely to settle some long-standing disputes among Egyptologists.
One debate involves the start of the New Kingdom, which included famous pharaohs such as Amenhotep, Tutankhamen and Ramses. Historians had disagreed on precisely when this era started, with one group favouring 1539 BC, and another placing the date at about 1550 BC. The findings of Bronk Ramsey and his team favour the earlier date - and possibly even a decade earlier than that.

Similarly, there has also been some debate about the starting date for the Middle Kingdom, which preceded the New Kingdom. Traditionally, the beginning of that era has been tied to an astronomical bearing on the star Sirius. But it wasn't clear where the sighting had been taken, and that led to date estimates ranging from 2055 BC to 2009 BC. Again, the latest study by Bronk Ramsey and his colleagues supports the earlier date. "This is really a very important data set," says Bruins.
The data might also help archaeologists and historians to determine where the explosion of the volcano Thera figures in the history of Egypt. The eruption destroyed much of the Greek isle of Santorini and sent shock waves through Mediterranean civilization. The precise date of the eruption is of some contention, but by comparing previous results with the latest data, it is possible to conclude that the explosion took place before the beginning of the New Kingdom, says Bruins"
.

Furthermore, the same methods can be used to correlate Egyptian history with that of the rest of the Mediterranean. "We can finally compare apples with apples," Bruins says.
http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100617/full/news.2010.304.html

Informação em português, disponível em:
http://www.publico.pt/Ci%C3%AAncias/a-idade-dos-reinados-do-antigo-egipto-confirmouse-nos-vegetais_1442457